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Mega trends represent major transformations in social, political-economic and environmental fields that are generating significant changes on a global scale, thus bringing new challenges to be faced. The mega trends identified are as follows:

  • Socio-demographic mix: redefining balances between young people and senior citizens and reviewing the welfare system;
  • Enabling technologies: exploiting the advantages of digital technologies and rethinking privacy issues and online security;
  • Importance of the individual: fostering more active and transparent participation in the decision-making process;
  • Economic interconnection: establishing the globalization of opportunities and economic risks;
  • Public debt: controlling the growth of debt and defining new public services that are able to meet social and economic needs;
  • Shift in the economic centre of gravity: focusing on the economies of emerging countries that are the new global centres of production and consumption;
  • Climate change: the natural and urban ecosystem is changing unpredictably due to greenhouse gas emissions;
  • Shortage of resources: a rising shortage of resources;
  • Urban development: urban systems are proving to be the driving force of global development in a more sustainable way.