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Carrying capacity
The maximum population that any give habitat can sustain. It may be correlated to the ecological sustainability of a human population living in an isolated region; the Earth’s carrying capacity is its capacity to feed and sustain the population and all other life forms (vegetable and animal) that man and nature need in order to survive. The term is broadly used to indicate sustainability limits in the man/environment relationship of the Earth (or of a specific territory).


Cause related marketing

CRM is a partnership between a company and a nonprofit organization for implementing a social project, while simultaneously pursuing the company’s business goals and the organization’s social purposes.


CDP (Carbon Disclosure Project)
An international initiative that encourages companies to focus on risk management and on the opportunities that arise from climate change.

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Civil economy
It is rooted in classical thought, and specifically in Italian civil humanism. It is synonymous neither with social economy nor with private economy. Its central idea is that of living the experience of human sociality, mutuality and brotherhood in the context of a normal economic existence. It states that there is a place for principles other than profit and instrumental exchange in economic activities, thus enabling the two most currently widespread conceptions of the relationship between the economic sphere (that we may broadly refer to as the market) and the social sphere (or the sphere of solidarity) to be overcome. This conception does away with the vision in which the economic sphere (the markets) is an ethically neutral place based solely on the exchange of equivalent goods – because it is the economic context itself that, based on the presence or absence of these other principles, becomes civil or uncivil, and with the no longer sustainable vision (which is still very widespread in many parts of the Third Sector) in which giving and mutuality belong solely to the sphere of civil life.


CLG (Corporate Leaders Group) – EU CLG
A group of European leaders, coordinated by Cambridge University.


Cogeneration
Cogeneration is the combined production of electrical (or mechanical) energy and usable heat using the same primary source. Cogeneration, using the same fuel for two different purposes, aims to use primary energy more efficiently, resulting in associated cost reductions especially in productive processes that entail a simultaneous use of electricity and heat.


Consolidated report
A document that illustrates a company’s financial situation and assets, the economic results and the variations in the net assets of a group of companies considered as a single economic entity. It derives from the aggregation of the balances of the companies belonging to a group, excluding the value of intra-group operations.


Corporate citizenship
Corporate citizenship is the management of all the relationships that exist between a company and the local, national and international context in which it operates. It implies the company’s commitment to integrating the market’s needs and socially responsible needs into its strategy.


Corporate giving (direct giving)
Donations and grants made by the company in favor of socially and/or environmentally useful organizations and initiatives. In this case, the company’s  contribution to organizations and to correlated projects is exclusively monetary.


Corporate governance
It is the company’s form of government, comprising the set of relationships between executives, shareholders and other parties involved. The concept also includes the structure through which the company’s goals and the instruments for achieving them are identified and performance is monitored (OECD Code - 1999). Broadened Governance consists in the responsible management not only towards the company’s owners (shareholders) but also towards parties whose interests influence or are influenced by the company’s activities (stakeholders).


Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
The definition of corporate social responsibility given by the European Commission’s Green Book is the following: “ Social Responsibility is the voluntary integration of corporate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their relations with the parties concerned (stakeholders)”. The company must aim to fulfill the expectations of stakeholders, in a context of continuous improvement.  

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Co-siting

Agreements for sharing technological sites (for TLCs specifically, network access sites and passive infrastructures) by several parties in order to make a more efficient use of network infrastructures in urban and rural areas.


Council of Economic Priorities (CEP)
An American institution founded in 1969 to provide investors and consumers with information tools for analyzing companies’ social performance.


CO2 – Carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases. It is ascribable to industrial processes and is produced by combustion, specifically by the use of fossil fuels.

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Critical natural capital
The minimum level that is necessary for the ecosystem’s biological reproducibility.


Customer satisfaction
A process for finding out the perceptions and expectations of customers towards a service or a product. It is used to assess in relative terms the quality of a service provided to the public.