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Secondary market
Market for issues previously offered or sold.


Seed Money

Venture capitalist's first contribution toward the financing or capital requirements of a start-up business.


Selling Short
Of a security not owned by the seller; a technique used (1) to take advantage of an anticipated decline in the price or (2) to protect a profit in a long position.


Settlement date

The date for the delivery of securities and payment of funds.


Sharpe Ratio

A measure of a portfolio's excess return relative to the total variability of the portfolio.


Sinker
A bond with a sinking fund.


Sinking fund

Money set aside by an issuer of bonds on a regular basis, for the specific purpose of redeeming debt.


Speculation

Assumption of risk in anticipation of gain but recognizing a higher than average possibility of loss.


STAKEHOLDER
Or “interest holders” in a financial initiative, whether this be a company or project. These comprise, for example, customers, suppliers, financiers (banks and shareholders), partners, but also third parties such as residents living in the vicinity of the business or groups of local interest.

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Standard deviation
The square root of the variance. A measure of dispersion of a set of data from its mean.


Stock Dividend

Payment of a corporate dividend in the form of stock rather than cash.


Swap
The sale of a block of bonds and the purchase of another block of similar market value. Swaps may be made to establish a tax loss, upgrade credit quality, extend or shorten maturity, etc.

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Synergy
Ideal sought in corporate mergers and acquisitions that the performance of a combined enterprise will exceed that of its previously separate parts.