Backbone
Network portion with the highest traffic intensity and from which the connections for services in the local areas depart.
Read more on Wikipedia

Bad Debt
Open account balance or loan receivable that has proven uncollectible and is written off.

Balance of Payments

System of recording all of a country's economic transactions with the rest of the world during a particular time period.

Balance of Trade

Net difference over a period of time between the value of a country's imports and exports of merchandise.

Balance Sheet

Financial report showing the status of a company's assets, liabilities, and owners' equity on a given day.

Basis point

One one-hundredth of 1 percent. Yield differences among fixed-income securities are stated in basis points

Bear Market

Prolonged period of falling prices.

Bearer security

A security that has no identification as to owner. It is presumed to be owned by the person who holds it. Bearer securities are freely negotiable, since ownership can be quickly transferred from seller to buyer by delivery of the instrument.


Best practice

An action or project that, due to its methodology, innovative approach or achieved results, can be considered as a reference experience.
Beta
Coefficient measuring a stock's relative volatility. The beta is the covariance of a stock in relation to the rest of the stock market.

Beta
measure of the relative volatility of a stock or other security as compared to the volatility of the entire market (usually measured for a benchmark index). A beta above 1.0 shows greater volatility than the overall market, while betas below 1.0 are less volatile.

Bid

The price at which a buyer will purchase a security.

Bid Price
The price at which a market-maker is willing to purchase a specified quantity of a particular security.

Biological diversity/Biodiversity
Biodiversity refers to life forms and to the variety of plant, animal and microorganism species that exist and that characterize nature. Sustainability from an environmental point of view implies the conservation of biological diversity, which is just as important as human health and the quality of the air, water and soil for the well-being of both human society and plant and animal life (Aalborg Charter).


Bitstream
Wholesale Broadband access service which consists of supplying an access to XDSL Telecom Italia network and a transmission capacity to the network of another OLO.

Blue Chip

Common stock of a nationally known company that has a long record of profit growth and dividend payment and a reputation for quality management, products, and services.

Board of Directors

Group of individuals elected, usually at an annual meeting, by the shareholders of a corporation and empowered to carry out certain tasks as spelled out in the corporation's charter.

Bond
Any interest-bearing or discounted government or corporate security that obligates the issuer to pay the bondholder a specified sum of money, usually at specific intervals, and to repay the principal amount of the loan at maturity.

Bond Ratings

An indicator of the creditworthiness of specific bond issues. These ratings are often interpreted as an indication of the likelihood of default on the part of the respective bond issuers. Bonds with the smallest default probability are rated AAA (or Aaa).

Bonus Issue

Also known as a capitalization or scrip issue. This is when a company issues free shares to a company's existing shareholders. No money changes hands and the share price falls pro rata. This is usually used as an exercise to make the shares more marketable.

Book-entry
A method of recording and transferring ownership of securities electronically, eliminating the need for physical certificates.

Bottom-Up Approach

An investment strategy that focuses on individual stocks, rather than general market trends. It assumes strong companies can perform well independent of the market environment.


BroadBand services
Services characterized by a transmission speed of 2 Mbit/s or more. According to international standards, these services are divided into two categories: (i) Interactive services, including videotelephone/videoconferencing (both point-to-point and multipoint); videomonitoring; interconnection of local networks; file transfer; CAD; highspeed fax; e-mail for moving images or mixed documents; broadband videotex; video on demand; retrieval of sound programs or fixed and moving images; and (ii) Broadcast services, such as sound programs, television programs (including high-definition TV and pay TV) and selective document acquisition.

Broadcast
Simultaneous transmission of information to all nodes and terminal equipment of a network.

Broker
Person who acts as an intermediary between a buyer and seller, usually charging a commission.
Read more on Wikipedia

 

BSS (Business Support System).
The system used by network operators to manage business operations such as billing, sales management, customer-service management and customer databases. A type of Operations Support System (OSS). 

Budget
Estimate of revenue and expenditure for a specified period.

Bundle
Commercial offer including different telecommunication services (voice, BroadBand internet, IPTV, other) by an operator with only brand. Bundle Dual Play includes fixed telecommunication services and BroadBand internet; bundle Triple Play is the “bundle dual play” integrated by IPTV; bundle Quadruple Play is the “bundle triple play” integrated by mobile telecommunication services.

Business Ethics
It is a philosophic discipline that studies the relationship between ethical values and economic institutions on various levels: macro (market), meso (companies) and micro (individual decisions). Business ethics is a process for turning values into actions and decisions. It may also be considered as the evolution of CSR: business ethics considered as a point of view, as a globally ethical approach, adopted by all internal resources, at all levels and towards all stakeholders.